By Terrence Walters, Roy Osborne
Cycads resemble hands, yet are taxonomically particularly varied. they're a major and irreplaceable part of the planet's organic variety, having developed numerous and infrequently specific morphological, anatomical and biochemical positive factors in the course of their 250-million-year evolutionary historical past. Many cycad species exist this day simply as small, poorly-known or remoted populations or as decorative species in botanic gardens. with a view to comprehend totally, in addition to to preserve, this across the world endangered tropical plant team, it really is paramount that cycad systematics is studied, documented and refined.This quantity offers the present nation of our wisdom of the systematics of the nearly three hundred species of cycads. It comprises contributions from top researchers from Australia, China, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Thailand and the us. it's been built from papers provided at a workshop held in 2002 on the Montgomery Botanical middle.
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Additional info for Cycad Classification:
Seemannii C. apoa C. tuckeri C. yorkiana C. cairnsiana C. ophiolitica C. maconochiei C. calcicola C. furfuracea C. silvestris C. media C. papuana C. armstrongii Fig. 1. Combined molecular and morphological analysis for species of Cycas (strict consensus tree). Bootstrap support values shown above branches. From Hill (1999 and in preparation). into four subgenera. The classification systems of Schuster and subsequent authors are examined in the light of recent cladistic studies below. D. Hill quacy of specimens and recorded observations in representing the differences and similarities occurring within and between populations and taxa.
4D), in all cases with different circumscriptions, on the basis of morphological cladistic analyses. Nine subordinate groups corresponding to subsections were also proposed, most of them informal. Of the four sections, two are shown to be polyphyletic, and one of the nine subsections is shown to be polyphyletic, with two others possibly paraphyletic (Fig. 4D). Wang (1996) presented another formal infrageneric classification, recognizing two subgenera on the basis of pectinate vs. non-pectinate megasporophylls.
Most of the characters that have been widely used in infrageneric classification in the past are shown to be useful, although character polarities were not always as previously assumed. Each character state is discussed individually below. 2. Characters used by different workers in defining groups in Cycas. Character States Outgroup conditions Ovules Glabrous/tomentose Glabrous Sclerotesta Smooth/striate/ribbed/ Smooth/striate verrucose/crested Spongy Absent/present Absent megagametophytic tissue Fibrous sarcotesta Absent/present Absent Ovule number Seed cone Megasporophyll apex Megasporophyll length Pollen cones 1–14 Closed/open Pectinate/dentate/ entire Long/short Pollen cones Cylindrical/ovoid Microsporophyll apex Base of plant Attenuate/truncate Soft/rigid Swollen/not swollen Habit Caulescent/ acaulescent Petiole Long/short Leaflet Leaflet margins Entire/divided Flat/revolute Leaflet apex Leaflet midrib Soft/spinescent Raised/flat Reference Miquel, 1861; Schuster, 1932 Hill, 1996; Wang, 1996 Deghan and Yuen, 1983; Hill, 1994 Hill, 1994; Wang, 1996 2 Warburg, 1900 Not comparable Wang, 1996 Entire Schuster, 1932 Not comparable Schuster, 1932 Soft/rigid Smitinand, 1971; Hill, 1996, 1999 Cylindrical/ovoid de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Not comparable de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Swollen/not de Laubenfels and swollen Adema, 1998 Caulescent/ Smitinand, 1971; acaulescent de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Long/short de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Entire/divided Wang, 1996 Flat de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Soft/spinescent Schuster, 1932 Raised/flat de Laubenfels and Adema, 1998 Ovule tomentum Two species, Cycas revoluta and C.
Cycad Classification: by Terrence Walters, Roy Osborne