By Andrea Eugenio Cavanna, Andrea Nani
This publication stories essentially the most vital medical and philosophical theories in regards to the nature of brain and realization. present theories at the mind-body challenge and the neural correlates of realization are offered via a sequence of biographical sketches of the main influential thinkers around the fields of philosophy of brain, psychology and neuroscience. The publication is split into components: the 1st is devoted to philosophers of brain and the second one, to neuroscientists/experimental psychologists. every one half includes twenty brief chapters, with every one bankruptcy being devoted to one writer. a short advent is given on his or her lifestyles and most vital works and impacts. the main influential theory/ies constructed by means of each one writer are then rigorously defined and tested with the purpose of scrutinizing the strengths and weaknesses of the several techniques to the character of consciousness.
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Extra info for Consciousness: Theories in Neuroscience and Philosophy of Mind
16 3 Tim Crane our scientific picture of the world, which is highly problematic. All those thinkers who charge neuroscientists of psychologism should also explain what, according to them, thoughts, logical, and mathematical entities are made of and how these entities can interact with or at least be grasped by brain processes (see Chap. 6 for a discussion of the classical dualistic position within the philosophy of mind). Crane accepts the critique of the philosophical tradition but, at the same time, argues in favor of the independence and importance of the mind by claiming that mental entities are self-standing parts of reality, which are susceptible to different kinds of analysis, from the phenomenological to the empirical to the conceptual ones.
A quale (singular of qualia) is thought to be intrinsic to a mental state. But if so, there should be something essential and invariable in the nature of a specific quale that does not depend on external elements. However, philosophers commonly think that the same quale (say, seeing a pink tie) can be different for every human being. For instance, there are substances (such as phenol-thio-urea) that have a bitter taste to a high proportion of people, but no taste at all to others. Moreover, the same quale can change through time even for the same person.
Further, Chaps. 1 and 13 show how other authors have used the logical frame behind this line of reasoning to develop arguments against both physicalism and identity theories of mind. Descartes’ classical dualism is currently a minority position within the circles of philosophers and neuroscientists, although it continues to receive endorsement by some scholars. A few examples are Hart (1988), Foster (1991), and Swinburne (1997). Other authors – for example, Hasker (1999) and Lowe (2006) – uphold an original view, inspired by Descartes’ philosophy, which maintains the separation between mind and body without claiming at the same time that one substance be physical and the other nonphysical.
Consciousness: Theories in Neuroscience and Philosophy of Mind by Andrea Eugenio Cavanna, Andrea Nani