By David Foulkes
David Foulkes is among the foreign leaders within the empirical research of kid's dreaming, and a pioneer of sleep laboratory learn with kids. during this ebook, which distills a life of learn, Foulkes exhibits that dreaming as we in general comprehend it-active tales during which the dreamer is an actor-appears quite past due in formative years. This real dreaming starts among the a while of seven and nine. He argues that this overdue improvement of dreaming indicates an both past due improvement of waking reflective self-awareness. Foulkes bargains a lively protection of the independence of the mental realm, and the legitimacy of learning it with no both psychoanalytic over-interpretation or neurophysiological reductionism.
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Extra info for Childrens Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness
Whether from such observation or from more standardized tests, the data we collected from or about children ﬁnally were described as rankings or scores that could be correlated statistically with scores or rankings on dream variables; in effect, a comparison of the daytime child with the nighttime child. Generally, two or three waking test sessions were scheduled during each year of a child’s service in the study. The monograph (Foulkes, 1982a) originally describing this research lists 657 nondream variables that we correlated with children’s dream data, and notes that we computed, thanks to highspeed computers, some 136,411 such correlations.
But what about their dreams? Surely, the objection is raised, they were inﬂuenced in a major way—distorted, in comparison to typical home dreams—by the laboratory environment, the presence How to Study Children’s Dreams 30 of the experimenter/interviewer, the presence on most other nights of at least one other child, the fact of wearing electrodes on the face and scalp so that brainwaves and eye movements might be recorded, and so on. Once again, the data refute these seemingly reasonable but quite erroneous expectations.
These critics, however, have ignored empirical data indicating that laboratory methods in dream research work out at least as well with children as with adults. How to Study Children’s Dreams 29 For instance, from presleep behavior ratings of the children in the longitudinal study (Foulkes, 1982a), we know that most often most of the children were judged to be moderately or extremely relaxed in the presleep period in the laboratory, and that extreme anxiety was very rare, even at the youngest ages at which children were studied (3 and 4).
Childrens Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness by David Foulkes