By Ellen M Markman
During this landmark paintings on early conceptual and lexical improvement, Ellen Markman explores the attention-grabbing challenge of the way teenagers prevail on the job of inducing thoughts. subsidized by way of wide experimental effects, she demanding situations the primary assumptions of conventional theories of language acquisition and proposes that a collection of constraints or ideas of induction permits little ones to successfully combine wisdom and to urge information regarding new examples of wide-spread different types.
Ellen M. Markman is Professor of Psychology at Stanford collage.
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Extra info for Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction (Learning, Development, and Conceptual Change)
The Taxonomic and Whole Object Assumptions Thus, to return to Quine's problem of induction, we are faced with a kind of paradox. Children seem to readily learn terms that refer to object categories. Their vocabulary is filled with words such as "ball" and "dog," simple concrete nouns referring to object categories. Yet children often notice and remember thematic relations between objects more readily than an object's category. How is it that children readily learn labels for categories of objects if they are attending to relations between objects instead?
D ()Q o"""t (60 00 U1 1--\ 52 Chapter 3 which kind of animal it was, and told whether they were right or wrong. Children in the paired associate condition were told that they had to learn a masculine first name-for instance, "Tom"-for each animal. On each trial they were shown an animal picture, asked to say its name, and told what the correct answer was. Immediately before they were tested on how well they had learned the categories, children in both conditions were shown each training exemplar one more time and told whether it was a zonk or a nonzonk.
For example, "bachelor" is defined as "unmarried man"-that is, "unmarried" and "man" are necessary and sufficient features for being a bachelor. The definition of the category or the criteria for membership are referred to as the "intension" of the categor)', whereas the objects that are members of the category are referred to as the "extension" of the category. According to the classical vie\\', there is a straightforward reciprocal relation between the intension and the extension. That is, all objects that have the necessary 40 Chapter 3 and sufficient criteria are members of the category; and all members of the category must have the necessary and sufficient features.
Categorization and Naming in Children: Problems of Induction (Learning, Development, and Conceptual Change) by Ellen M Markman