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This cannot be considered to be an absolute method since volatile organic compounds also vaporize and affect the weight. More practical methods are of interest, which can be adapted for automation with more continuous measurements on-line (Eriksson, Njurell, & Ehleskog, 2002). A direct on-line method might be in favor since it would give a faster and more accurate result, and would give the possibility to control variations at an earlier stage. The chosen method of measuring moisture content and the need for fast control depends on the feeding system.

When the process no longer is starved of oxygen, these compounds may explosively combust 28 CHAPTER 3. , 2010c). Staged Combustion The most basic combustion process used in boilers is to have a single source of combustion air. In order to increase the efficiency of the combustion process as well as reducing various emissions a technique called staged combustion has been introduced and is widely used. This technique varies in complexity depending on the size of the boiler system. A staged combustion commonly used in boilers is the so called staged air technique.

For example, boilers with small portions of fuel burning at a time where the reaction therefore is fast, such as a fluidized bed, will require faster control and updates as often as each minute. , 2002). 1. Indirect Method The indirect method is based on the assumption of a relation between moisture in fuel and moisture in flue gases. By analyzing the flue gases, moisture content in fuel can be calculated. Moisture in flue gases originates from mainly three sources; hydrogen in the fuel forming water during combustion, moisture in the fuel, and humidity in the inlet air.

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Boiler Control improving efficiency of boiler systems by Hjalti Kristinsson


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