By J. Karakoç Bakis, Jülide Karakoç
Via a distinct choice of essays drawn from wealthy case stories, Authoritarianism within the center East presents very important insights into the continued instabilities of the center East, and the authoritarianism and democratisation techniques that experience resulted in dramatic socio-political variations.
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Extra info for Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Before and After the Arab Uprisings
The impact of the present The role of the West: democracy promotion It is important to note the impact of external powers on the democratizing process all around the world. The European Union (EU) enlargement process, for instance, plays an important role in the democratization of Eastern Europe. The pressures and incentives of the organization have direct and indirect effects on establishing democracy, not only in the member countries but also in the candidates. However, external democratizing pressure did not bring democracy to the Middle East in the post– Cold War period.
This attitude consists of being open to reforming old institutions. Such a characteristic is common to the three periods. The parties did not go beyond basic modifications of the status quo. During all three periods, the governments conflicted with the military, a dominant actor on the political scene and a defender of secularism. Nevertheless, none of the parties confronted certain institutions of the deep state that are direct results of military hegemony in the political sphere. As for political liberties, the intolerance of opponents and distrust for minorities are common across some periods of these three parties’ rule.
Political Science Quarterly, 99 (2), pp. 193–218. ———. (1991a) The Third Wave. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ———. (1991b) “Democracy’s Third Wave,” Journal of Democracy, 2 (2), pp. 12–34. 36 Selin M. Bölme ———. ” Foreign Affairs, 72 (3), pp. 22–49. L. (1995) “The Hybrid Regimes of Central America,” Journal of Democracy, 6 (3), pp. 72–86. Kedourie, E. (1992) Democracy and Arab Political Culture. Washington, DC: Institute for Near East Policy. , and M. Thompson (2009) “More than Just the Final Straw: Stolen Elections as Revolutionary Triggers,” Comparative Politics, 41 (3), pp.
Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Before and After the Arab Uprisings by J. Karakoç Bakis, Jülide Karakoç