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By Lars Gustafsson, William J. Sutherland

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Extra info for [Article] The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis

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In November 2006, the reliability (successful completion of hole) of the automated drill program was 39 per cent and was little used due to its poor performance. An optimisation study was conducted on the Telfer underground production drill rigs so as to examine current drilling practices and identify areas of potential improvement. INTRODUCTION OPTIMISATION SITE WORK Underground production drilling technologies have developed and changed significantly in the last 25 years. In the 1980s there was a change from top hammer drill types to hydraulic powered water in the hole hammer drilling types.

The ability to directly calibrate the model to simulate observed damage and instability at the mine. As elastic models don’t simulate damage, these models may only be ‘correlated’. • The numerical ability to simulate multiple mining areas, backfilling, geological structures and geological domains from a mine scale to a drive scale in a single model. • The ability of the model to produce outputs that could be directly compared to field observations, including rock damage (plastic strain) and movement.

There is a large amount of information in the graph shown in Figure 7: • The graph allows the modelled DPE to be interpreted as event probability directly with a quantifiable error range. • The ‘mean efficacy’ for each magnitude shown in the graph is the average correlation between event occurrence and DPE, expressed as a probability over the period of the study period. The mean efficacy is the relation that would normally be used to quantify the relation between DPE and event probability. • The graphs show there is near-zero event probability at zero FIG 4 - The relation between stress, strain and damage for a sample, after Aydan, Akagi and Kawamoto (1993).

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[Article] The costs of reproduction in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis by Lars Gustafsson, William J. Sutherland

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