Animal Weapons: The Evolution of Battle - download pdf or read online

By Douglas J. Emlen

ISBN-10: 142994739X

ISBN-13: 9781429947398

The tale at the back of the beautiful, severe guns we see within the animal world—teeth and horns and claws—and what they could let us know concerning the method people strengthen and use fingers and different weapons

In Animal guns, Doug Emlen takes us outdoors the lab and deep into the forests and jungles the place he's been learning animal guns in nature for years, to give an explanation for the methods in the back of the main fascinating and curious examples of maximum animal weapons—fish with mouths higher than their our bodies and insects whose heads are so jam-packed with muscle they don't have room for eyes. As singular and weird as many of the guns we come across on those pages are, we study that related elements set their evolution in movement. Emlen makes use of those styles to attract parallels to the way in which we people strengthen and hire our personal guns, and feature given that conflict all started. He appears at every little thing from our armor and camouflage to the evolution of the rifle and the buildings human populations have outfitted throughout varied areas and eras to guard their houses and groups. With attractive black and white drawings and lovely colour illustrations of those ideas at paintings, Animal guns brings us the whole tale of ways guns achieve their such a lot oversized, dramatic strength, and what the consequences we witness within the animal global can let us know approximately our personal dating with guns of every kind.

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Swider and Gardner propose for zenith angles 0 < (r/2) the equation Ch x,O < -~ = -~- 1-err x 1~2cos exp xcos 2 ~ . , for horizontal direction, Ch(x, ~ ) - (71-x/2) 1/2 , which is about equal to 40. 7. 19: Atmospheric column density X1 in curved atmosphere encountered by a cosmic ray incident under zenith angle ~1 <_ 7r/2 to reach point P~ at altitude h. Also shown is the situation for point P2 at t? > ~r/2 and column density )(2, a situation that may arise when h is large. For zenith angles in excess of lr/2, a situation that may arise in satellite experiments (cf Fig.

Kunow (1992), Moraal (1993). However, some selected heliospheric phenomena are summarized in Chapter 6. 3 Geomagnetic Cutoff Charged particles approaching the Earth from outer space follow curved trajectories because of the geomagnetic field in which they propagate. As they enter the atmosphere they may also be subject to interactions with atmospheric constituents. Disregarding the existence of the atmosphere, the question whether a particle can reach the Earth's surface or not depends solely on the magnitude and direction of the local magnetic field, and on the rigidity and direction of propagation of the particle.

Stochastic and relatively sudden changes, where the cosmic ray intensity may drop occasionally as much as 15 % to 30 % within tens of minutes to hours, followed by a gradual recovery to the previous average intensity within many hours or even days, are the so-called Forbush decreases (Forbush, 1937, 1938 and 1958). They are caused by magnetic shocks of solar origin. The above mentioned phenomena are referred to as solar modulation effects. Occasional transient high energy phenomena on the Sun caused by solar flares ejecting relativistic particles are responsible for the so-called ground level enhancement (GLE).

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Animal Weapons: The Evolution of Battle by Douglas J. Emlen


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