By Amelia Lambelet, Raphael Berthele (auth.)
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Extra resources for Age and Foreign Language Learning in School
The C-test (Grotjahn, 1992, 2002) is a more modern version in which only half of a word is deleted. To complete the text, test subjects must rely on the context to infer the words or letters that have been removed. This type of assessment enables the simultaneous evaluation of lexical, grammatical, and conversational skills in the target language. 0007 12 Age and Foreign Language Learning in School telling a specific story. ). Formal listening comprehension tests: Formal listening comprehension tests come in different forms and are designed in accordance with the subjects’ ages and levels of proficiency.
The third variant is compatible with Johnson and Newport’s (1989) view that there is a first period in which onset of learning means guaranteed success, followed by a period where age effects are observed (during brain maturation), whereas in the third part of the graph no age effects are observable because of completed brain maturation (cf. Birdsong, 2006, p. 16). Just as with the native-like criterion, the criterion of a nonlinear decline to confirm or refute the hypothesis of a critical period for L2 development is based on statements regarding ultimate attainment and is thus not very relevant to academic contexts; as a result, this literature review does not discuss this aspect at length.
0009. 0009 35 36 Age and Foreign Language Learning in School The various sections of this literature review present the results of studies investigating the effects of age of onset on foreign language learning in the classroom. The results of studies in educational settings are occasionally supplemented by and discussed in relation to the results of studies in natural contexts. As mentioned, early learners have frequently been observed to have an advantage over older learners in the long term and in natural contexts, and different theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon.
Age and Foreign Language Learning in School by Amelia Lambelet, Raphael Berthele (auth.)