By Wilmot Godfrey James, Human Sciences Research Council
This paper used to be offered because the first annual John Gerhart Memorial Lecture on the convention of the Africa Genome Initiative held in Cairo in March 2004. In Africa within the Age of Biology, Dr James discusses Africa's lengthy historical past of medical, technological and mathematical firm, from tokens of the very earliest counting by way of people to the sum of data dropped at endure within the development of the pyramids. yet he makes a speciality of the demanding situations of this day, and the next day to come, which he indicates Africa's leaders and students dare no longer omit. Dr James argues that Africa stands challenged to behave by itself initiative to concentration funding past the dimensions of NEPAD's tasks, supply political management and direct scholarly realization on benefiting from genetic advancements for the advantage of its populations.
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Extra resources for Africa in the Age of Biology
Although the genetic change accompanying such shifts may initially be quite limited, the habitat isolation is often sufficient to keep the gene pools in the two environments separate, facilitating their further divergence. Where the alternate habitats are not necessarily geographically separate (such as diverse breeding substrates within a forest in the case of drosophilids, or food resources in the case of honeycreepers), speciation may have been essentially sympatric. That substantial reproductive isolation can result from the evolution of habitat specialization via disruptive selection on habitat preference has been clearly demonstrated experimentally (Rice, 1985) and via simulation (Rice, 1984).
SPECIATION PROCESSES IN HAWAII The preceding parade of examples of speciation in Hawaiian organisms is but a small sample of the many fascinating cases that have been studied. The characteristic pattern of adaptive radiation generating many ecologically diverse taxa from a single rare founder begs the central question: Why have species multiplied so readily in Hawaii? The answer is not a simple one, because there is a multiplicity of factors that affect the probability of a speciation event, and different factors playa greater or lesser role depending on the biology of the particular organism.
1995) in coding and regulatory regions. Further adaptation to the microenvironment of the breeding niche is suggested by striking variations in the morphology of the egg; the respiratory filaments display different lengths and degrees of porosity, and chorion ultrastructure varies adaptively with dramatic divergence in all the regions 26 E. M. Craddock involved in respiratory exchange and in the thickness and complexity of the outer en do chorion (Fig. 6; Kambysellis, 1993). The length and shape of the ovipositor also vary in accord with the nature of the oviposition substrate (Craddock and Kambysellis, 1997).
Africa in the Age of Biology by Wilmot Godfrey James, Human Sciences Research Council