By Alluru S. Reddi
Written in a succinct query and resolution layout, this entire source covers all parts of nephrology and customary medical eventualities. approximately one thousand questions with certain solutions supply nephrology fellows, practising nephrologists and clinicians a greater realizing of nephrology and relief arrangements for nephrology and inner medication forums. Absolute Nephrology evaluate good points the newest facts and directions whereas pleasant a severe desire in the nephrology community.
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Extra info for Absolute Nephrology Review: An Essential Q & A Study Guide
B. C. D. E. Hyperparathyroidism Pseudohypothyroidism Vitamin D deficiency Low Ca2+ intake Type 2 diabetes The answer is C Elevated PTH, 1,25(OH)2D3, and alkaline phosphatase levels are observed in hyperparathyroidism; however, hypercalcemia is frequently associated with this disease. Pseudohypoparathyroidism is characterized by elevated phosphate and PTH levels, normal 25(OH)D3 and reduced 1,25(OH)2D3 levels. Low Ca2+ intake does not cause hypocalcemia, as Ca2+ levels are maintained by bone resorption.
5 mmol/L. Serum creatinine is normal. The anion gap is 20, but osmolal gap is normal. Which one of the following is the MOST likely cause of this acid–base disturbance in this patient? A. L-Lactic acid B. Pyroglutamic acid 1 Fluids, Electrolytes, and Acid–Base Disorders 39 C. D-Lactic acid D. Methanol E. Topiramate The answer is C Except for topiramate, all other causes generate high AG metabolic acidosis. Topiramate causes non-AG metabolic acidosis due to inhibition of carbonic anhydrase. Serum L-lactate is normal; therefore, L-lactic acidosis is excluded.
Although total Ca2+ determination may not be that helpful because of hemodilution related to massive transfusion, ionized Ca2+ is helpful. Citrate toxicity causes tetany, prolonged QT interval, hypotension due to decreased peripheral vascular resistance, decreased myocardial contractility and muscle tremors. IV Ca2+ is the appropriate treatment of transfusion-induced hypocalcemia. Generally, hyperkalemia is the common abnormality with blood transfusion; however, hypokalemia is infrequently observed once metabolic alkalosis ensues due to conversion of citrate into HCO3À.
Absolute Nephrology Review: An Essential Q & A Study Guide by Alluru S. Reddi